Eine Mann füllt mit einer Pipette eine rote Flüssigkeit in ein kleines Glas

Physiology of the Vessels Lab

  • Illumination of the function of kidney and brain vessels
  • Role of endocrine, autocrine and paracrine substance on the regulation of renal arteries and microvessels
  • Importance of the vascular compont during the development of acute kidney damage and the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasmus

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Research topic

The group focuses on the mechanisms of renal and cerebral vascular function in physiology and pathophysiology. We aim investigating the role of several endocrine, autocrine and paracrine substances in the control of renal arteries and microvessels. We study the vascular element of acute kidney injury and the role of hypoxia in this context. We are also interested in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm. The research encompasses experiments in cells, organs, and investigations in patients. The methodological background consists of perfusion of microvessels and tubules, isometric measurements, pressurized arteries, in situ measurement of renal vessels in kidney slices, fluorescence and immunohistological techniques.


  • Bayer Schering Pharma, 2014-2017
  • Else Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftung, 2009-2012
  • Grant to Z. Liu, ministry of education, People's Republic of China, 2009-2013
  • German Research Foundation Project 2 of the Research Unit FOR 1368 "Hemodynamic Mechanisms of acute Kidney Injury" PA 479/10-1 and 10-2, 2011-2017
  • SOMNOmedics
  • Promotionsstipendium D. Braun Sonnenfeld-Stiftung, 2017
  • German Research Foundation Project A02 of the Collaborative Research Center CRC 1365 "Renoprotection" CRC1365/1, A02;01/2019-12/2022
  • German Research Foundation Project A05 of the Collaborative Research Center CRC 1365 "Renoprotection" CRC1365/1, A05;01/2019-12/2022


  • Clinic of Urology, PD Dr. J. Busch, Charité
  • Group of Prof. J. Jankowski, University Aachen
  • Group of Prof. E.Y. Lai, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou
  • Group of Prof. R. Liu, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson
  • Clinic for Internal Medicine, Dr. H.-H. Minden, Oberhavelkliniken Hennigsdorf
  • Group of Prof. A.E.G. Persson, University Uppsala, Biomedical Center, Sweden
  • Group of PD Dr. Rosenberger, Nephrology, Charité
  • Group of Prof. R. Schubert, University of Heidelberg
  • Group of Prof. Semenyutin, Russian Polenov Neurosurgical Institute, St. Petersburg

Publications (since 2010)

Aichinger G, Lichtenberger FB, Steinhauer TN, Flörkemeier I, Del Favero G, Clement B, Marko D: The Aza-Analogous Benzo[c]phenanthridine P8-D6 acts as a dual topoisomerase I and II poison, thus exhibiting potent genotoxic properties. Molecules 25: 1524, 2020

Khedkar PH, Patzak A: SARS-CoV-2: What do we know so far? Acta Physiologica 229:e13470, 2020

Xu N, Jiang S, Persson PB, Persson EA, Lai EY, Patzak A: Reactive oxygen species in renal vascular function. Acta Physiologica :e13477, 2020

Schleifenbaum J: Alamandine and its receptor MrgD pair up to join the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system. Front Med (Lausanne) 6: 107 10.3389/fmed.2019.00107, 2019

Zhong C, Schleifenbaum J: Genetically encoded calcium indicators: a new tool in renal hypertension research. Front Med (Lausanne) 6: 128 10.3389/fmed.2019.00128, 2019

Zadeh JK, Garcia-Bardon A, Hartmann EK, Pfeiffer N, Omran W, Ludwig M, Patzak A, Xia N, Li H, Gericke A: Short-time ocular ischemia induces vascular endothelial dysfunction and ganglion cell loss in the pig retina. Int J Mol Sci 20: pii: E4685, 2019

Berndt N, Patzak A, Holzhütter HG: Metabolic modeling of kidney diseases: lessons learned from the liver. Acta Physiologica 227:e13350, 2019

Kaßmann M, Szijarto IA, Garcia-Prieto CF, Fan G, Schleifenbaum J, Anistan YM, Tabeling C, Shi Y, le Noble F, Witzenrath M, Huang Y, Marko L, Nelsen MT, Gollasch M: Role of ryanodine type 2 receptors in elementary Ca2+ signaling in arteries and vascular adaptive responses. Journal of the American Heart Association 8:e010090, 2019

Zadeh JK, Ruemmler R, Hartmann EK, Ziebart A, Ludwig M, Patzak A, Xia N, Li H, Pfeiffer N, Gericke A: Responses of retinal arterioles and ciliary arteries in pigs with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Exp Eye Res. 184:152-161, 2019

Pramsohler S, Schilz R, Patzak A, Rausch L, Netzer NC: Periodic breathing in healthy young adults in normobaric hypoxia equivalent to 3500 m, 4500 m, and 5500 m altitude. Sleep Breath 23:703-709, 2019

Patzak A, Ludwig M: Models. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 225:e13237, 2019

Zhou S, Jiang S, Guo J, Xu N, Wang Q, Zhang G, Zhao L, Zhou Q, Fu X, Li L, Patzak A, Hultström M, Lai EY: ADAMTS13 protects mice against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury by reducing inflammation and improving endothelial function. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 316:F134-F145, 2019

Witte J, Mühlbauer M, Braun D, Steinbach A, Golchert J, Rettig R, Grisk O: Renal soluble guanylate cyclase is downregulated in sunitinib-induced hypertension. Journal of the American Heart Association 7:e009557, 2018

Klopsch C, Skorska A, Ludwig M, Lemcke H, Maass G, Gaebel R, Beyer M, Lux C, Toelk A, Müller K, Maschmeier C, Rohde S, Mela P, Müller-Hilke B, Jockenhoevel S, Vollmar B, Jaster R, David R, Steinhoff G:
Intramyocardial angiogenetic stem cells and epicardial erythropoietin save the acute ischemic heart
Disease Models & Mechanisms 11: dmm033282, 2018

Braun D, Zollbrecht C, Dietze S, Schubert R, Golz S, Summer H, Persson PB, Carlström M, Ludwig M, Patzak A: Hypoxia/Reoxygenation of rat renal arteries impairs vasorelaxation via modulation of endothelium-independent sGC/cGMP/PKG signaling. Front Physiol 9: 480, 2018

Zhang S, Huang Q, Wang Q, Wang Q, Cao X, Zhao L, Xu N, Zhuge Z, Mao J, Fu X, Liu R, Wilcox CS, Patzak A, Li L, Lai EY: Enhanced renal afferent arteriolar reactive oxygen species and contractility to endothelin-1 are associated with canonical Wnt signaling in diabetic mice. Kidney Blood Press Res 43: 860-871, 2018

Willière Y, Borschewski A, Patzak A, Nikitina T, Dittmayer C, Daigeler AL, Schuelke M, Bachmann S, Mutig K: Caveolin 1 promotes renal water and salt reabsorption. Scientific Reports 8: 545, 2018

Högner A, Krause H, Jandrig B, Kasim M, Fuller TF, Schostak M, Erbersdobler A, Patzak A, Kilic E: PBRM1 and VHL expression correlate in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma with differential association with patient's overall survival. Urol Oncol. 36: 94.e1-94.e14, 2018

Pahlitzsch TM, Liu ZZ, Al-Masri A, Braun D, Dietze S, Persson PB, Schunck WH, Blum M, Kupsch E, Ludwig M, Patzak A: Hypoxia-reoxygenation enhances murine afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction by angiotensin II. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 314: F430-F438, 2018

Gehring J, Gesche H, Drewniok G, Küchler G, Patzak A: Nocturnal blood pressure fluctuations measured by using pulse transit time in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep Breath. 22: 337-343, 2018

Gao X, Liu ZZ, Mohammed H, Braun D, Zhuge Z, Liu M, Lai EY, Jansson L, Carlström M, Patzak A, Persson AEG: Extravasal albumin concentration modulates contractile responses of renal afferent arterioles. Acta Physiol. 222:e12925, 2018

Semenyutin VB, Asaturyan GA, Nikiforova AA, Aliev VA, Panuntsev GK, Iblyaminov VB, Savello AV, Patzak A: Predictive Value of Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation Assessment in Surgical Management of Patients with High-Grade Carotid Artery Stenosis. Front Physiol. 8: 872, 2017. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00872. eCollection 2017

Klopsch C, Skorska A, Ludwig M, Gaebel R, Lemcke H, Kleiner G, Beyer M, Vollmar B, David R, Steinhoff G: Cardiac Mesenchymal Stem Cells Proliferate Early in the Ischemic Heart. Eur Surg Res. 58(5-6): 341-353, 2017

Braun D, Dietze S, Pahlitzsch TMJ, Wennysia IC, Persson PB, Ludwig M, Patzak A: Short-term hypoxia and vasa recta function in kidney slices. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 67: 475-484, 2017

Liu ZZ, Mathia S, Pahlitzsch T, Wennysia IC, Persson PB, Lai EY, Högner A, Xu MZ, Schubert R, Rosenberger C, Patzak A: Myoglobin facilitates angiotensin II-induced constriction of renal afferent arterioles. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 312: F908-F916, 2017

Fähling M, Seeliger E, Patzak A, Persson PB: Understanding and preventing contrast-induced acute kidney injury. Nat Rev Nephrol 13: 169-180, 2017. Review

Ludwig M, Högner A, Patzak A: You are not alone. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 219: 337-338, 2017

Tsvetkov D, Kaßmann M, Tano JY, Chen L, Schleifenbaum J, Voelkl J, Lang F, Huang Y, Gollasch M: Do KV 7.1 channels contribute to control of arterial vascular tone? Br J Pharmacol. 174(2): 150-162, 2017

Huang Q, Wang Q, Zhang S, Jiang S, Zhao L, Yu L, Hultström M, Patzak A, Li L, Wilcox CS, Lai EY: Increased hydrogen peroxide impairs angiotensin II contractions of afferent arterioles in mice after renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Acta Physiologica 218: 136-145, 2016

Zhang G, Wang Q, Zhou Q, Wang R, Xu M, Wang H, Wang L, Wilcox CS, Liu R, Lai EY: Protective effect of tempol on acute kidney injury through PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway. Kidney Blood Pressure Res. 41: 129-138, 2016

Dietze S, Patzak A: Biomarkers. Acta Physiologica 216: 379-382, 2016

Vandekerckhove L, Vermeulen Z, Liu ZZ, Boimvaser S, Patzak A, Segers VF, De Keulenaer GW: Neuregulin-1 attenuates development of nephropathy in a type 1 diabetes mouse model with high cardiovascular risk. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 310: E495-E504, 2016 

Skorska A, Haehling von S, Ludwig M, Lux CA, Gaebel R, Kleiner G, Klopsch Ch, Dong J, Curato C, Altarche-Xifró W, Slavic S, Unger T, Steinhoff G, Li J, David R: The CDA4+AT2R+T cell subpopulation improves post-infarctions remodelling and restores cardiac function. J Cellular Molecular Med. 19: 1975-1985, 2015

Ludwig M, Tölk A, Skorska A, Maschmeier Ch, Gaebel R, Lux CA, Steinhoff G, David R: Exploiting AT2R to improve CD177 stem cell function in vitro and in vivo - perspective for cardiac stem cell therapy. Cellular Physiol and Biochem. 37: 77-93, 2015

Ludwig M, Högner A: High expectations: from treatment to prevention. Acta Physiologica 215: 2-4, 2015

Patzak A, Mendoza Y, Gesche H, Konermann M: Continuous blood pressure measurement using the pulse transit time: comparison to intra-arterial measurement. Blood Pressure 24: 217-221, 2015

Nikitina T, Zavaritskaya O, Semenyutin V, Persson PB, Patzak A, Sendeski M: Effects of iodinated contrast media in a novel model for cerebral vasospasm. Arq Neuropsiquitr 73: 125-131, 2015

Patzak A: Kontinuierliche nicht-invasive Blutdruckmessung mittels Pulswellenlaufzeit. Klinikarzt 44: 238-242, 2015 

Kaufmann J, Martinka P, Moede O, Sendeski M, Steege A, Fähling M, Hultström M, Gaestel M, Moraes-Silva IC, Nikitina T, Liu ZZ, Zavaritskaya O, Patzak A: Noradrenaline enhances angiotensin II responses via p38 MAPK activation after hypoxia/re-oxygenation in renal interlobar arteries. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 213: 920-932, 2015 

Patzak A, Carlström M, Sendeski MM, Lai EY, Liu ZZ, Sällström J, Flöge J, Heintz B, Jankowski J, Jankowski V: Diadenosine pentaphosphate modulates glomerular arteriolar tone and glomerular filtration rate. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 213: 285-93, 2015

Gao X, Peleli M, Zollbrecht C, Patzak A, Persson AE, Carlström M: Adenosine A1 receptor-dependent and independent pathways in modulating renal vascular responses to angiotensin II. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 213: 268-76, 2015

Chen L, Kaßmann M, Sendeski M, Tsvetkov D, Marko L, Michalick L, Riehle M, Liedtke WB, Kuebler WM, Harteneck C, Tepel M, Patzak A, Gollasch M: Functional transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 channels along different segments of the renal vasculature. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 213: 481-91, 2015

Laspas P, Goloborodko E, Sniatecki JJ, Kordasz ML, Manicam C, Wojnowski L, Li H, Patzak A, Pfeiffer N, Gericke A: Role of nitric oxide synthase isoforms for ophthalmic artery reactivity in mice. Exp Eye Res 127: 1-8, 2014

Bäumler H, Xiong Y, Liu ZZ, Patzak A, Georgieva R: Novel hemoglobin particles--promising new-generation hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers. Artif Organs 38(8): 708-14, 2014

Brinkmann O, Schmerbach K, Tietge U, Dietrich T, Guski H, Linz D, Kühn H, Patzak A, Wilfert K: Changes in arterial function in a mouse model of human familial hypercholesterolemia. Acta Physiologica 211: 61-72, 2014

Reuter S, Patzak A, Mrowka R: Hypertension. Acta Physiologica 211: 1-4, 2014

Potthoff SA, Fähling M, Clasen T, Mende S, Ishak B, Suvorava T, Stamer S, Thieme M, Sivritas SH, Kojda G, Patzak A, Rump LC, Stegbauer J: Angiotensin-(1-7) modulates renal vascular resistance through inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Hypertension 63: 265-272, 2014

Muoio V, Persson PB, Sendeski MM: The neurovascular unit – concept review. Acta Physiologica 210: 790-798, 2014

Schmerbach K, Patzak A: The metabolic syndrome: is it the mother's fault? Acta Physiologica 210: 702-704, 2014

Liu Z, Schmerbach K, Lu Y, Perlewitz A, Nikitina T, Cantow K, Seeliger E, Persson PB, Patzak A, Liu R, Sendeski M: Iodinated contrast media cause direct tubular cell damage, leading to oxidative stress, low nitric oxide, and impairment of tubulo-glomerular feedback. American Journal of Physiology, Renal Physiology 306: F864-F872, 2014

Schmerbach K, Patzak A: Pathophysiological mechanisms in acute mountain sickness. Acta Physiologica 209: 246-249, 2013

Xiong Y, Liu ZZ, Georgieva R, Smuda K, Steffen A, Sendeski M, Voigt A, Patzak A, Bäumler H: Nonvasoconstrictive haemoglobin particles as oxygen carriers. ACS NANO 7: 7454-7461, 2013 

Liu N, Patzak A, Zhang J: CXCR4-overexpressing bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells improve repair of acute kidney injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 305: F1064-F1073, 2013

Persson AEG, Lai EY, Gao X, Carlström M, Patzak A: Interactions between adenosine, angiotensin II and nitric oxide on the afferent arteriole influence sensitivity of the tubuloglomerular feedback. Frontiers in Physiology 4(187):1-4, 2013

Henning A, Patzak A: Continuous blood pressure messurement using pulse transit time. Somnologie 17(2):p.104-110, 2013

Sendeski MM, Liu ZZ, Perlewitz A, Busch JF, Ikromov O, Weikert S, Persson PB, Patzak A: Functional characterization of isolated, perfused outer medullary descending human vasa recta. Acta Physiologica 208:50-56, 2013

Liu N, Patzak A, Sendeski MM: Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in renal medulla pathophysiology - so small yet so special: the renal medulla. Acta Physiologica 208:144-147, 2013 

Sendeski MM, Bondke Persson A, Liu ZZ, Busch JF, Weikert S, Persson PB, Hippenstiel S, Patzak A: Iodinated contrast media cause endothelial damage leading to vasoconstriction of human and rat vasa recta. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 303: F1592-F1598, 2012

Schrezenmeier E, Zollmann FS, Seidel K, Böhm C, Schmerbach K, Kroh M, Kirsch S, Klare S, Bernhard S, Kappert K, Goldin-Lang P, Skuballa W, Unger T, Funke-Kaiser H: Moderate Correlations of in vitro versus in vivo Pharmacokinetics Questioning the Need of Early Microsomal Stability Testing. Pharmacology 90: 307-315, 2012

Schmerbach K, Kalk P, Wengenmayer C, Lucht K, Unger T, Hocher B, Thoene-Reineke C: Renal outcome in equipotent antihypertensive treatment with telmisartan, ramipril and in combination in SHR-SP rats. Clin Lab. 58: 625-633, 2012

Liu ZZ, Viegas VU, Perlewitz A, Lai EY, Persson PB, Patzak A, Sendeski MM: Iodinated contrast media differentially affect afferent and efferent arteriolar tone and reactivity in mice: A possible explanation for reduced glomerular filtration rate. Radiology 265: 762-771, 2012

Fähling M, Bondke Persson A, Klinger B, Benko E, Steege A, Kasim M, Patzak A, Persson PB, Wolf G, Blüthgen N, Mrowka R: Multilevel regulation of HIF-1 signaling by TTP. Mol Biol Cell 23: 4129-4141, 2012

Li Y, Seidel K, Marschall P, Klein M, Hope A, Schacherl J, Schmitz J, Menk M, Schefe JH, Reinemund J, Hugel R, Walden P, Schlosser A, Volkmer R, Schimkus J, Kölsch H, Maier W, Kornhuber J, Fröhlich L, Klare S, Kirsch S, Schmerbach K, Scheele S, Grittner U, Zollman F, Goldin-Lang P, Peters O, Kintscher U, Unger T, Funke-Kaiser H: A polymorphic microsatellite repeat within the ECE-1c promoter is involved in transcriptional start site determination, human evoluation, and alzheimer's disease. The J Neuroscience 32: 16807-16820, 2012

Hennig A, Gesche H, Fietze I, Penzel T, Glos M, Patzak A: Messung von apnoebezogenen Blutdruckänderungen mittels Pulstransitzeit und Penaz-Prinzip. Atemwegs- und Lungenkrankheiten 38: 1-8, 2012

Semenyutin V, Aliev V, Bersnev V, Patzak A, Rozhchenko L, Kozlov A, Ramazanov S: Informativity of pulsatility index and cerebral autoregulation in hydrocephalus. Perspectives in Medicine 1: 311-315, 2012

Viegas VU, Liu ZZ, Nikitina T, Perlewitz A, Zavaritskaya O, Schlichting J, Persson PB, Regitz-Zagrosek V, Patzak A, Sendeski MM: Angiotensin II type 2 receptor mediates sex differences in mice renal interlobar arteries response to angiotensin II. J Hyperten 30: 1791-1798, 2012

Schmerbach K, Patzak A: The renin-angiotensin system - a functional 'jack-of-all-trades'. Acta Physiol. (Oxford) 205: 453-455, 2012

Perlewitz A, Persson AE, Patzak A: The juxtaglomerular apparatus. Acta Physiol. (Oxford) 205: 6-8, 2012

Seeliger E, Sendeski M, Rihal CS, Persson PB: Contrast-induced kidney injury: mechanisms, risk factors, and prevention. European Heart Journal 33: 2007-2015, 2012

Gesche H, Grosskurth D, Küchler G, Patzak A: Continuous blood pressure measurement by using the pulse transit time: comparison to a cuff-based method. Eur J Appl Physiol. 112: 309-315, 2012

Seidel K, Kirsch S, Lucht K, Zaade D, Reinemund J, Schmitz J, Klare S, Li Y, Schefe JH, Schmerbach K, Goldin-Lang P, Zollmann FS, Thöne-Reineke C, Unger T, Funke-Kaiser H: The Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger (PLZF) Protein Exerts Neuroprotective Effects in Neuronal Cells and is Dysregulated in Experimental Stroke. Brain Pathology 21: 31-43, 2011

Thoene-Reineke C, Rumschüssel K, Schmerbach K, Krikov M, Wengenmayer C, Godes M, Mueller S, Villringer A, Steckeling U, Namsolleck P, Unger T: Prevention and Intervention Studies with Telmisartan, Ramipril and Their Combination in Different Rat Stroke Models. PLoS One 6(8): e23646, 2011

Goa X, Patzak A, Sendeski M, Scheffer PG, Teerlink T, Sallstrom J, Fredholm BB, Persson AE, Carlstrom M: Adenosine A1 receptor deficiency diminishes afferent arteriolar and blood pressure responses during nitric oxide inhibition and angiotensin II treatment. Am J Physiol Regu, Integr and Comp Physiol. 301: R1669-R1681, 2011

Gericke A, Sniatecki JJ, Goloborodko E, Steege A, Zavaritskaya O, Vetter JM, Grus FH, Patzak A, Wess K. Pfeiffer N: Identification of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype mediating cholinergic vasodilation in murine retinal arterioles. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 52: 7479-7484, 2011

Gericke A, Kordasz ML, Steege A, Sanbe A, Goloborodko E, Vetter JM, Patzak A, Pfeiffer N: Functional role of α 1-adrenoceptor subtypes in murine ophthalmic arteries. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 52:4795-4799, 2011

Sendeski MM: The pathophysiology of renal tissue damage by iodinated contrast media. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. (CEEP) 38: 292-299, 2011 

Gericke A, Sniatecki JJ, Mayer VG, Goloborodko E, Patzak A, Wess J, Pfeiffer N: Role of M1, M3 and M5 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in cholinergic dilation of small arteries studied with gene-targeted mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 300: H1602-H1608, 2011 

Schildroth J, Rettig-Zimmermann J, Kalk P, Steege A, Fähling M, Sendeski M, Paliege A, Lai EY, Bachmann S, Persson PB, Hocher B, Patzak A: Endothelin type A and B receptors in the control of afferent and efferent arterioles in mice. Nephrol. Dialysis Transplant. 26: 779-789, 2011

Sendeski M, Patzak A, Persson PB: Constriction of the vasa recta, the vessels supplying the area at risk for acute kidney injury, by four different iodionated contrast media, evaluating ionic, non-ionic, monomeric and dimeric agents. Invest. Radiology 45: 453-457, 2010

Carlström M, Lai EY, Ma Z, Steege A, Patzak A, Eriksson UJ, Lundberg JO, Wilcox CS, Persson AEG: Superoxide dismutase 1 limits renal microvascular remodeling and attenuates arteriole and blood pressure responses to angiotensin II via modulation of nitric oxide bioavailability. Hypertension 56: 907-913, 2010

Cao C, Edwards A, Sendeski M, Lee-kwon W, Cui L, Cai CY, Patzak A, Pallone TL: Intrinsic nitric oxide and superoxide production regulates descending vasa recta contraction. Am J Physiol - Renal Physiol 299: F1056-F1064, 2010